Vol. 1

PTNHE eves of the world have been watching the .... phases of state activity in New Zealand, hoping to learn something that might be used

in the social reform of other nations. Having become the sociological experiment station of the universe, she is rather expected to try out all radical ideas for the benefit of humanity. The country is remote, has a homogeneous population of intelligent, well edu- cated people who have a high standard of public virtue; the climate is healthful and the soil fertile, so that im- portant conditions are favorable to the work in hand.

If in any country, therefore, the ideals of Utopia could be realized, surely New Zealand affords the ‘hance. But has the aim been accomplished? Let us briefly analyze the results the government has secured irom having established Old Age Pensions, Parcels Post, Savings Bank, Fire Insurance, Life Insurance,

system of Telegraphs, Telephone Exchanges, and rom operating Coal Mines.

To receive a state pension the citizen must be 65 cars old, sober and reputable and 25 years a resident. is income must not exceed $300 annually, and his ac- mulated property must ngt amount to $1300 or over. ie full pension of $130 a year is reducible by $5 for ery $5 of income over $170. Thus when the plicant’s yearly income reaches $300, the right to \ pension is lost. Likewise, a reduction of $5 is de for every $50 of accumulated property.

As to state insurance, state ownership of mines, i government management of railways and other lic enterprises, the plan of conducting all such ivities on sound business principles has lately been pted. This policy prevails not only where the ‘¢ is competing with private effort, but in govern- it monopolies, where lack of competition tends to © expensive management, obsolete methods and casonable concessions to public clamor. The sent aim is to make each business pay at least -rest on the capital invested.

(he most recent reports at hand show that the iual profits of the Post and Postal Telegraph “partments are approximately $500,000. The State val Mines netted the government another $100,000. ‘© railways showed a deficit of $1,030,000, while

NEW YORK, MAY 11, 1912 No. 31

the net profits to the state from 5 per cent. loans made to settlers was $325,000.

Telegrams and telephone service are cheaper than in the United States. Railway fares are practically the same (2c. per mile). The price of coal is higher than when the government first went into the busi- ness. Wages, as compared with the cost of living, are slightly lower than in this country, and the net public debt of New Zealand ($329,000,000) amounts to $340 per head, which forms a striking comparison with our net debt of $10 per head. The enormous net debt of New Zealand, however, does not seem so great when compared with the total private wealth of the country, which is $1628 per head, a greater per- capita wealth than that of any other nation.

It would be unfair to say that the mild form of socialism prevailing in New Zealand is a failure. But has it improved conditions? Of 1,000,000 inhabitants, 130,000 are directly dependent on the state. Poverty has not been abolished, for there are just as many paupers in the towns of New Zealand as in American cities. Also the distribution of wealth is not much more equal, since statistics show that 1 per cent of the families in that country own 35 per cent. of the wealth, a condition but little better than that which exists in the United States.

Strange to say, socialistic legislation has had an effect that certainly was not socialistic. Discon- tented and land-hungry laborers, through state aid, have been converted into prosperous citizens, strong supporters of the freehold and ardent advocates of the sanctity of private property.

There is still a discontented class, who, having little to tax and nothing to lose, desire to exploit the rich, regarding the capitalist as a goose to be kept for the sake of its golden eggs. We should study New Zealand’s scheme of compulsory arbitration and her system of old-age pensions. Also, if it will make our coal industry more stable, we would like to see Uncle Sam operating a few mines of his own, but to believe that results so far attained in this far-off country point a way out of the tangled woods of social unrest is hardly justified by the facts that exist.

998

COAL AGE

Vol. 1, No. 31

The Acme Co.’s Plant in Wyoming

The mines of the Sheridan, Wyo. coal field are operating on seams that have been designated by the Geological Sur- vey as sub-bituminous, but are more commonly known locally as_ lignite. Whether this coal is a true lignite, in the common acceptance of the term, is a question the Survey men evaded by giv- ing the new name. The coal differs from the ordinary lignite in that it con- tains less moisture and far less ash. In color it is black instead of brown, and it has a high gloss, almost as bright as the best grades of anthracite. It burns freely to a clean, light ash, hav- ing a resemblance to wood ash.

Because of the fact that it is mined from large clean seams and nearly all of the mines leave a coal roof, the re- sulting product is exceptionally clean. It contains barely more than traces of sulphur. For steam purposes it is a good fuel, and is used in large quan- tities by the C. B. & Q. R.R. As a coai for domestic use it is in some ways superior to the ordinary bituminous, as in burning it leaves almost no soot, and for this reason, as well as its freedom from clinkers and sulphurous gas, it derives merited popularity.

Of the several mines in the Sheridan district the newest and one of the best equipped, as well as one of the largest, is the Acme Coal Co.’s property. This company is but two years old, and owns three mines. Mine No. 3 is operating in the top seam of the district, which is known locally as the Monarch. Mines 1 and 2 are working in the Carney, or second seam, the Monarch being eroded at this point. Mines 1 and 2 are on a property comprising about 300 acres, 3 miles west of the 1100-acre tract on which Mine No. 3 is located. The for- mer property is operated under a short term lease, and the latter under a ninety- nine-year contract. All three openings are made in the bluffs of the Tongue River, by drifts having a slight inward dip.

THE AcME No. 3 MINE

The main entry of the Acme No. 3 mine is in the bluffs of the Tongue River, on the northerly side of the stream. From the pit mouth the track, which has a 42-in. gage, and is laid with 45-lb. rails, both on the surface and in the main haulageway, follows the bluffs westerly, and crossing a steel bridge, enters the yards. At a point 25C ft. from the foot of the inclined approach to the tipple, the electric loco- motives are uncoupled and the cars picked up, one at a time by a eable haul. The essential features of this

haul are a 114-in. steel cable to which

By Jesse Simmons *

A detailed description of one of the largest and best equipped plants in the Sheridan, Wyo., field, a general description of which was recently published in COAL AGE. An unusual refine- ment in sizing the coal is attained by the use of a shaking screen with both a lateral and longitud- inal motion; this is one of only four or five such screens in use in this country.

*Deadwood, 8S. D.

are attached 4-wheel trolleys, equipped with dogs which engage lugs on the car axles, the trolleys running on _ 16-lb. rails. The haulage is controlled by a friction clutch, making it possible to give the proper feed to the cars going up the incline.

important advantage over other types. It is one of four or five in this coun- try, but it has been extensively and suc- cessfully used in Germany.

From this screen coal may be diverted into either open or box-cars, a stand- ard Ottumwa box-car loader being used to load the latter. By cutting out the screen, which is done by covering it with movable steel plates, mine-run may be loaded direct into the cars. As a further precaution in the preparation of lump, the coal before entering the rail- way cars passes over grizzlies, thus re- moving the last vestige of slack and dust which might have been carried to this point.

RE-SCREENING PLANT

The coal passing through the shaker- screen may be either diverted to open cars on the slack track, or to an ele- vator boot from whence it is conveyed by a 30-in. rubber-belt conveyor, 265

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NS “os

AcME Co.’s STEEL TIPPLE, SHOWING RE-SCREENING PLANT AND CHUTES

At the foot of the incline the cars are picked up by a cable haul similar in detail to the one described, which takes them to the top of the tipple. The top of the incline is 49 ft. above the yard tracks, and has a grade of 15 deg. The cars are dumped over a crossover dump, and automatically transferred by means of a double track system, down the approach, and madé up into trains for return to the mine.

When the coal is dumped from the mine cars it enters a large bin provided with a movable bottom, or feeder plate, arranged to be operated at varying rates of speed. This delivers the coal to a shaker-screen of special design having a capacity of 3000 tons per day and openings 6 in. in diameter. Having both longitudinal and lateral motion, the makers of this screen claim it has an

ft. long, to a revolving screen 65 above the ground, at the top of wha is known as the re-screening plant. Th screen is 24 ft. in length, and for on half of the length an outer screc” 7 ft. in diameter surrounds the ma’ screen, which is 6 ft. in diameter. b ginning at the upper end, the openin in the main, or 6-ft. screen, are follows: 1-in., for the first 12 ft.; © a 6-ft. section with 2-in. openings, Ww '~ the remaining 6 ft. has 3'%-in. oF ings. The outer screen has '4-in. or’ ings, and surrounds that portion of the inner screen having 1-in. openings. The following grades of coal can big made at this plant: At the main tir’ ©. lump, mine-run and slack; at the screening plant, slack, pea. nut and eg The slack is that portion passing through the 14-in. opening; the pea size drops

<

7

May 11, 1912

1rough the 2-in. opening; the nut rrough the 31%-in. screen, and the egg

that product which has passed through he 6-in. screen in the tipple and over ie 3%-in. The regular grades may

e dumped into their respective bins at rie re-Screening plant, or the product ray be mixed if desired, making not only the four sizes of coal as originally prepared, but a combination of these sizes to meet special market conditions.

The bins into which the coal is screened are made entirely of steel, and are of latest modern construction. In order to prevent any breakage of the coal after having been prepared in the revolving screen, it is conveyed to the bottom, or coal level, in the bin by means of special chutes, constructed as

JEFFREY Motor AT THE New ACME MINE

COAL AGE

and the tipple, the slack is picked up by screw conveyors, 6 in. in diameter, and delivered to bucket elevators housed in steel, which returns the material to the screens. This eliminates consider- able hand labor and keeps the loading tracks free from accumulations of coal.

At the re-screening plant the bins are provided with hoppered chutes over the center track, for loading open cars. The two tracks at the side are equipped with chutes for loading box-cars only. The hoppers over the center tracks are equipped with improved clam-shell de- livery gates. The entire plant is operated by electricity, power being secured from the Sheridan Electric & Power Co., whose plant is close to the tipple, as shown in the illustration. Westinghouse, alternating current, 3-phase, 60-cycle motors, having a capacity of 2300 volts are used for driving the tipple and screening plant, one 60-hp. motor being used at each place. The electric loco- motives and coal cutters are driven by 250-volt direct current.

MACHINE SHOP

The machine and blacksmith shop is a reinforced concrete building, 40x60 ft., with a steel roof, and equipped with the machinery for making all necessary re- pairs to cars, mining machines, etc. A

Dan mrage: So eee 1 na aa

AcME Co.’s TIPPLE AND SHERIDAN ELEcTRIC LIGHT & PowER Co.’s PLANT

fo ws: The chute proper is a steel b standing nearly vertical and pro- \\ 4d with a series of sloping steel

sh es. The-.coal in passing down the c pursues a zig-zag course from Si to shelf, and finally arrives at the c level in the bin without having di sed at any time, a distance which Wo. cause it to break. This scheme is ely followed in the anthracite terri- to. as being the best method of handl-

inc .oal with minimum breakage. neath the storage bins, which have

a acity of 500 tons, are three rail- Way tracks, where coal may be loaded fror. the bin. The mouths of the load- ing chutes are provided with grizzlies, Similar to the equipment at the tipple, for removing slack. At both this point

side track runs into the shop and over a pit, giving easy access for a man to work under the cars in making small repairs. A steel tank with a capacity of 75,000 gal. on a steel frame 75 ft. high, supplies the miners’ cottages, etc.

The tipple, re-screening plant and bridge across the Tongue River are all constructed of steel, resting on heavy concrete pillars. The work was done under contract, by the Ottumwa Box Car Loader Co., of Ottumwa, Iowa. The plant was designed by the manager of the Acme mines, A. K. Craig, of Sheri- dan, and machinery and equipment has been purchased from a number of manu- facturers, it having been his endeavor to secure the best in each particular line.

999

The Acme No. 3 mine started produc- ing mine-run coal, for railroad use, in February 1911, and during October the new tipple was put in operation. The re-screening plant will go in com- mission at an early date, and this mine will then be equipped to produce 3000 tons of coal per day—and a coal that will have as good a preparation as any produced in the field.

At this mine Jeffrey mining machines are uSed exclusively, both breast and longwall types; they are operated by a 250-volt direct current. A-Sullivan high speed fan, motor-driven, furnishes the ventilation, the 30-hp. motor’ on this ma- chine being driven by a 2300-volt, al- ternating current. Jeffrey electric loco- motives are used for haulage. At the present time the camp includes a few temporary shacks, and 20 employes’ cot- tages, completed or under construction; a large building, combining a boarding house, offices, etc., is also being built.’ As fast as necessary additional dwel- lings will be erected, and when a store, school, church, etc., are completed the camp will be quite an imposing one. The mine is about one-half mile from the main transcontinental line of the C. B. & Q. R.R., the grade being almost level for this distance.

METHOD OF MINING

In a recent report made by Jno. K. Seifert, the workable coal in the 1100- acre tract of the No. 3 mine, is placed at a thickness of at least 35 ft. This is contained in two seams, the Monarch or upper seam, having 26 ft., 4 in. of workable coal, and the Carney or sec- ond seam, about 9 ft. of workable coal. The present openings on this property are made in the Monarch seam, the Carney, which is 42 ft. below, being held in reserve. The workable coal in this track is figured at 38,500,000 tons.

Owing to the thickness of the Mon- arch seam, the ordinary methods of min- ing cannot be followed to advantage. There is about 23 ft. of absolutely clean coal in this seam, which can be mined without touching any kind of rock, bone or inferior material. In general it has been found that the room-and-pillar method, driving the rooms 10 to 12 ft. high, and later drawing the pillars, bringing down the roof, gives a high percentage of recovery. The panel sys- tem is used, as it is found necessary to stop up abandoned workings, since the disintegrated and dirty coal has a ten- dency to ignite from spontaneous com- bustion if left too long- exposed to the air.

Manager Craig, of the Acme mines, has devised a system of mining which is about to be patented. He claims for this system a higher recovery of the workable coal in these large seams than

1000

is possible by any of the methods now in use at the various mines. As stated he is about to apply for a patent, having practically completed all of the prelim- inary work and experimentation.

MINING CONDITIONS

The mines of this district are particu- larly fortunate in that they have abso- lute freedom from many of the dis- advantages which mark coal operations in other districts. The mines are free from gas, probably due to the fact that the veins are found not far below the surface, while the superimposed strata is largely sandstone or other porous rocks. In mining with a coal roof very little, in fact almost no, trouble is ex- perienced with caves or falls of rock

which would injure workmen. The Acme mine is typical of the district as regards freedom from acci- 2°8x6Exl8 Transom over. ane , 2°Bx24”Sash pe FOE Oe ape? = K- | id o |} S| Vid » pi! R 3 a aie : 2 ° 2 :

PLAN

dents; during the two years that this mine has been open there has not been a single fatal accident, and no serious accidents of any kind. The freedom from gas makes ventilation a fairly sim- ple problem, in fact the fan equipment at these mines would be totally inade- quate were there any gas present. The fans are practicaliy used only for the purpose of blowing out powder smoke.

The one drawback. which is not se- rious if anticipated and properly guarded against, is danger from fire. The slack coal, especially if mixed with dirt and rock where the roof has come in, in some abandoned room, is very likely to ignite from spontaneous combustion. Knowing this the operators use the panel system of mining, usually running about 30 rooms to a panel. Thus, when a 30-room panel has been worked out, it is only necessary to stop two openings in order to completely close up the sec-

COAL AGE

tion. These stoppings are ordinarily made with concrete.

ANALYSIS OF THE COAL

The following analyses were made by the Commercial Testing & Engineering Co., Chicago: :

Sample top to bottom of 8-ft. seam, Acme No. 1:

PAE Seis wi hw § wcle itis woes 17.83 PRMANN I Fer ceterrc ic ayn ata rine pita eoeie) Cee eee 4.11 Volatile matter ..... 58.20 Fixed carbon ....<:. 19.86

WE ko te ee ore ...-100.00

ESS ch Te Pa ame Norge ceria Mea AN rage 9950 RUNERBMN ERT 552-5 oni wt saa bas a eRe erro 0.24

Lower 12 ft. of Monarch seam Acme No. 3:

BUI MI On oo Sv ae ae wR ae 17.92 PRUNE cei ewe aie i e350) eee 9 we lendcas ede alah anna 3.58 We IIe BBICOT oc ow 0 ow wee es 44.81 ie oe Te Fg CC smal em aoe reer IS ne coe 33.69

2 LTC) ("> MRR dee tere eer ene eraser ae een 100.00 WRN has is a aeons, 3s a SIG Se OAR ee 10,247 1G OE ee Deeeneaieaerreee pagenrayere ic ee. coe 0.39

This quality of coal would make a

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splendid fuel for use in gas producers, probably as good, or better than the high class Virginia bituminous coal. These analyses are typical of this section, and when it is considered that this coal is mined absolutely free from foreign material (both the floor and roof being coal) it at once marks this district as unique in the coal industry.

ACME Nos. 1 AND 2

The coal from the A@me Nos. 1 and 2 mines is dumped over a single frame tipple; both mines are drifts, with slight inward dips. The coal is mined from the Carney seam, the thickness varying from 9 to 12 ft. Like the Acme No. 3, the room-and-pillar method, combined with the panel system, is used. Rooms are 16 ft. wide and 200 ft. long, leaving 15-ft. pillars. Four Jeffffrey short-wall machines are used for undercutting. The miners drill and blast their own coal,

Vol. 1,-No. 31

which work, as well as undercutting an. loading, is done on a schedule per to made with the local Miners’ Union These Unions are affiliated with the United Mine Workers.

Two 5-ton Jeffrey electric locomotives; are used in bringing the coal from th: main partings to the tipple; horses are used in the rooms. The mines are elec- trically equipped, power at 22,000 volts. 3-phase, 60-cycle, alternating current be- ing obtained from the Sheridan Electric Light & Power Co. This current is stepped down in three, 75-kv.-a., West- inghouse transformers to 2300 volts, and then drives a motor generator set, com- posed of a 220-hp., Allis-Chalmers motor, direct connected to an Allis- Chalmers, direct current generator, pro- ducing at 1130 r.p.m., a 250-volt, 545 ampere current; this current is used for the undercutting machines, locomotives

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Coat AGE

\ND FRONT ELEVATION OF THREE-AND FOUR-ROOM HOUSES

and tipple. In addition to the ab equipment, the transformer house ¢ tains a small transformer for stepp the current down to 110 voits for ° lighting circuit, used both in the m and town. As at present operated plant is capable of producing 1000 ' of coal in 8 hours.

With the three mines mentioned Acme Coal Co. is a strong compe! for the business of the Sheridan and the completion of the plant at 3 will place the company in sp!

position. The Acme Coal Co. is 0

by two men, A. K. Craig and Ora

nell. The former is the practical or and the latter the selling head. th are well qualified for the work they ~‘¢ undertaken, having had long exper. ‘°° in the coal business. To both of em the writer desires to acknowled:- bee

courtesies which have made it Pp‘

to secure the data for this ariicl

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May 11, 1912

EMPLCYEES’ RESIDENCES

In keeping with the equipment of the

ne, the company is erecting a group dwellings for the housing of em-

oyees which will bear comparison with

)se of any mining camp in the country.

ie plan of house No. 3, which is re-

oduced herewith, is typical of the vil-

se which is being buit. House No. 3, a as it is designated in the specifications, has four rooms besides a bath room, pantry and two closets; the conveniences ‘elude a front porch extending the width of the building, electric lights, running water, sewer connections and hard pine floors. The extreme dimensions of the outside walls give the house a width of 2? ft., 8 in. and a length of 27 ft., 6 in. The foundation is of concrete, with courses of concrete blocks laid

two

COAL AGE

studding and lath, plastered with two coats and finished hard and Chimneys rest on concrete piers which extend from the solid ground up to the floor level, taking the weight off the floors. A house of this description rents to an employee for S20. per month, including water, light and coal.

House No. 1 contains two rooms, a living room, 12x13-ft., and a_ kitchen 9x10-ft., besides a bathroom, pantry and closet. House No. 2 contains three rooms, a living room 12x12-ft., bed room 9x12-ft. and a kitchen 11 ft., 6 in. x12 ft., also a bathroom, pantry and closet.

PowER PLANT

The Sheridan Electric Light & Power Co. has a most uptodate power plant

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PLAN, ELEVATION AND PARTIAL SECTION OF Two-ROOM HOUSE

e the ground line; upon the founda- and butting upon the blocks, are the floor joists, and upon these the 1 floor is spiked and the studding i. After the studding is raised and outside weather boarding put on, nside of the exterior walls is board- > with rough lumber and into the thus formed, between the ship ind sheathing, concrete is poured vell tamped. After the wall thus ‘ucted, and .nto which pipes carry- ie electric wiring have been intro- as the work progresses, the in- rough boarding is removed and ‘all pointed up with rich concrete. it of alabastine or whitewash com-

> the interior wall. side from this innovation in construc- the house is completed in the usual \.:kmanlike manner, good plumbing be- used, and a heavy coating of paint Protecting the woodwork. Partition walls aie of the usual construction, 2x4

on land belonging to the Acme Coal Co., having the surface right under a 50-year lease. The location is 9 miles from the city of Sheridan, a place of 10,000 inhabitants, which is served by its pole lines. The coal mines of the Sheridan district are close at hand, the most distant operating mine, the Kooi, being only a little over 3 miles away.

An interurban electric road is build- ing from Sheridan to the coal mines, and has contracted for power generated at this plant. From these details it will be seen that the plant has a convenient location for the generation of power for the city of Sheridan, and is advantage- ously situated to give service to the mines and electric railway.

The plant is located about 200 ft. from the Acme No. 3 tipple, and it is the intention to install a conveyor for trans- ferring the coal from the tipple to the boiler room of. the plant. The boiler room contains three, Heine, water-tube

smooth. °

1001

boilers, one of which is being overated under a test with a Roney stoker; should this machine prove successful in the handling of lignite slack, a large field for its use will be opened up. There is demand for a stoker which will fire the slack coal from the Sheridan mines, as dozens of steam plants in Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, etc., are using coal from this field, and a very large proportion of them are using hand firing.

The superheated steam from these boilers is fed to two, Westinghouse- Parsons turbines, direct connected to Westinghouse alternating current .gen- erators, which at 3600 r.p.m., produce 1250 kw. of 2300-volt current. Further equipment in the engine room includes transformers which take the 2300-volt current and step it up to 22,000 volts, which is the line pressure. Some of the 2300-volt current is used at the ad- joining coal property, and a motor gen- erator set, in the same room, is driven by this current. This set comprises an Allis-Chalmers, 220-hp. motor, actuated by 54 amperes of alternating current, 60-cycle, 3-phase, at 2300 volts, direct connected to an Allis-Chalmers, direct current generator, producing cur- rent at 250 volts no load, 275 volts full load, 545 amperes; the set operates at 1130 revolutions per minute.

Exhaust steam from the turbines is taken through a Leblanc condensing sys- tem. Water for this system is taken from the Tongue River, on the banks of which the plant is situated.

Annual Banquet of Mine Off- cials at Pittsburg

Superintendents, mine foremen, assist- ant foremen and fire bosses of the seven- teenth bituminous inspection district of Pennsylvania held their first annual ban- quet at the Monongahela House, Pitts- burg, on Saturday evening, April 13. One hundred and fifty-four mining men of the district were in attendance.

W.H. Pratt was elected toastmaster and with a few appropriate remarks called upon the following, to address the gather- ing: J. I. Pratt, mine inspector of the seventeenth bituminous district; David Young, mine inspector of the fourteenth bituminous district; J. B. Johnston, editor of the Coal and Coke Operator; R. H. Heath of Homestead, Penn.; Hugh Gibbs, inspector for the Pittsburg-Buffalo Co., Canonsburg, Penn.; H. D. Thompson, su- perintendent of the Pittsburg Coal Co., Willock, Penn.; and Dr. McKnight, of Willock, Penn. David Young, of Free- port and T. A. Jackson, of Curtisville, were invited guests.

It is intended to make these meetings an annual affair and much credit is due John I. Pratt for bringing the mine offi- cials together to discuss various mine problems of the day.

1002

COAL AGE

Vol. 1, No. 31

Water Purification for Collieries

When water which is possessed of temporary hardness, is boiled or brought near the boiling point, carbonic acid gas is given off and carbonates are precipi- tated. This treatment suffices if there is no permanent hardness or other im- purity to be dealt with but when per- manent hardness is present, the water must be chemically treated. In the heater-softener, made by the Eriths’ Engineering Co., of London, the use of lime is dispensed with and the arrange- men of the apparatus is as shown in Fig. 1. The supplies of cold water and soda solution are delivered together into a trough near the top of the upright por- tion of the apparatus, whence the water overflows onto removable trays, and finally falls into the settling chamber. At the same time, exhaust steam is de- livered through the oil separator in the upper part of the shell surrounding the trays, and any excess of exhaust steam that there may be, escapes through a vent in the top of the shell.

Steam at atmospheric pressure is capa- ble of heating the water up to about 210 deg. F., and the air and carbonic acid gas in the water are driven off through the vent pipe, a large proportion of the carbonates and precipitates being delivered at the bottom of the settling chamber. Moreover, the soda ash solu- tion, which removes the sulphates, chlo- rides, and acids, has an accelerated ac- tion due to the heat. The water from the settling chamber passes upwards through a horizontal filter.

At the side of the settling tank will be seen a water space in which is lo- cated a float for controlling the admis- sion of cold water and soda. The sur- face of the water in the settling chamber is occasionally flushed over in order to remove the scum due to oil from the oil separator. This is accomplished by admitting an excess of cold water and the portion thus flushed off passes into a trap or water seal. It will be seen that back pressure cannot occur with this arrangement and there is no danger of choking from deposits. The travel of the water after passing over the trays still gives plenty of opportunity for pre- cipitation, and the low cost of soda ash, which is the only reagent used, makes the process inexpensive.

COMBINED HEATER AND SOFTENER

The Paterson Engineering Co., Ltd., have a large number of water purifica- tion machines working in connection with coal mining plants and the majority of these are arranged for the utilization of exhaust steam from hoisting engines, haulage engines and other steam driven auxiliaries. Fig. 2 shows a type of ap-

paratus in which the supply of hard

Special Correspondence

Water softeners which make use of waste heat, and combined preheaters and softeners are fre- quently installed. Iron salts re- quire special apparatus for their removal. Aluminum possesses remarkable properties in connec- tion with the softening of water, which are not, as yet, thoroughly understood. The third of a se- ries of articles on water-purify- ing processes and apparatus.

water is controlled by a float in the feed-pump suction tank and is led through a chemical regulating apparatus, which measures it continuously by means of a narrow vertical discharge weir.

A large float controls the position of two tapered valves discharging the soft-

by driving off the carbonic acid gas an. precipitating the lime salts.

For the removal of the permanen: hardness, sodium carbonate is necessary, and this is added through the Paterson measuring gear in accurate proportion to the amount of water passing. The heatec and softened water passes into the pre- cipitating chamber where the bulk of the impurities settle out, final purification be- ing effected by double filtration through wood fiber. One objection to the open- type exhaust heater is the contamina- tion of the feed water by oil. This is overcome in the Paterson apparatus by the addition of sulphate of alumina which coagulates the oil and fine sus- pended matter into tangible masses, read- ily arrested by the filtering medium.

APPARATUS FOR REMOVING IRON SALTS

Reference was made in a previous article to the removal of iron salts from

ener reagents. The level of these valves is i as is kept constant by ball cocks connected | to the chemical storage tanks. The hard | - water and reagents are thoroughly mixed a ean in a mixing tray before passing through a water seal into the heating chamber. iE | | The exhaust steam passes through - Cold Hard | HF ae P aie and Water Inlet SS Exhaust liminary grease separator (where the oil <a § ——-ae Inlet p =} al, : 7 | ° a Hi Automatic keguletor i | for Water and Soda rn] i = ——— oe —= |"! >| ——SapaS|E|]|]|]|]|]|-=-===—= S 2 Ra jo ——s 3s oe | eee eee oy = SSS iN Se = Le ee =a-- = = =Skimmer—' & +2 re 2 Seas | i eee VY =z oeg ee ae coe cee we as Core ae eare ae Tone S \ ogee | | eeu eee wensebee é 4. Water 2 oon = ey a Bene ————- = - EI , - OF Y _ f ///// —— 77 CoaLAGE

Fic. 1. Eritys “‘No LIME” FEED-WATER PURIFIER

from the engines is removed) to the heating chamber. Here it passes througn the trays in a counter-flow direction, finally escaping to the atmosphere. The heating trays are constructed of light sheet steel and are easily with- drawn for cleansing purposes. The water falls from the distributing box into the center of the top tray. Owing to the great length of the tr@ the water over- flows the edges in exceedingly thin films, which cling to the underside and drop from the center into the middle of the tray immediately below. After working its way to the edges of the second tray it again overflows onto the underside and drops into the middle of the third tray and so on. By this method exhaust steam comes into contact with the films of water and the temporary hardness is removed without the aid of chemicals,

mine water. The plant referred to, \ an automatic self-cleansing filter erec: by Messrs. Royles, Ltd., at the Tyldes' colliery for removing ochre colored : purities due to the presence of i: compounds in the water, a clear efflu resulting. Messrs. Royles have also veloped a special type of eliminator underground waters containing bicar ate of iron which as soon as it is posed to air is changed into iron 0. ~ causing the water to assume a res. brown color. Deposits of such sedin are apt to choke pipes and tubes water thus affected is hardly suitab: either boiler-feed or for bathing cleansing purposes. A brief note cerning this iron eliminator will t'ere- fore be of interest to colliery engiicers who have to deal with this particular form of impurity.

id for and con-

May 11, 1912

The device is illustrated in Fig. 3 nd consists of a spraying tank A, coke ‘ower B, and a gravel filter which is seriodically cleansed by means of air. “he untreated water flows into the spray- ag tank, the bottom of which is perfor- ted with small holes that allow the water to pass through onto the coke bed veneath, in the form of a fine shower. Water and air are thus thoroughly mixed

Filling up Pipe

COAL AGE

the filter is then maintained for a few minutes and the muddy water is drawn off through the mud valve.

REMARKABLE PROPERTY OF ALUMINUM

Mention was made also